Visualizing Vascular Mechanisms of Salt Sensitivity

Purpose

This study aims to assess the salt sensitive blood pressure response to dietary salt load compared with radiological markers of salt handling.

Conditions

  • Obesity
  • Cardiovascular Risk Factor
  • Salt; Excess

Eligibility

Eligible Ages
Between 18 Years and 55 Years
Eligible Genders
All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers
Yes

Inclusion Criteria

  • Identification as black race - Age between 18 and 55 years - Body mass index between 25 and <35 kg/m2 - Normotensive or pre-hypertensive - Willing to adhere to study diets - Able to provide informed consent and communicate with study personnel

Exclusion Criteria

  • Prevalent cardiovascular disease or use of medications for cardiovascular disease - Current or prior history of hypertension or use of blood pressure lowering medications - Current or prior history of diabetes mellitus or use of anti-diabetic medications - Prevalent renal disease (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2), abnormal serum sodium or potassium - Current or prior smoker - Current pregnancy, or use of hormone replacement therapy or oral contraceptive - Current steroid use - Contraindications to MRI - Active infection or open wounds on the top of the feet or hands

Study Design

Phase
N/A
Study Type
Interventional
Allocation
Randomized
Intervention Model
Crossover Assignment
Primary Purpose
Basic Science
Masking
Single (Outcomes Assessor)

Arm Groups

ArmDescriptionAssigned Intervention
Experimental
Low- then high-salt diet
10 subjects will be enrolled and each will undergo study procedures at 4 separate visits. Subjects will be randomly assigned to this study arm, differing in the order of low and high salt diets. After a baseline visit to include a noninvasive MRI scan, the subject will begin this study diet: low-salt diet, then washout consisting of the subject's typical diet, then high-salt diet. Each dietary or washout period lasts for 7 days, and study visits will occur after each period.
  • Dietary Supplement: Low-salt diet
    The low-salt diet (7 days) will consist of meals, snacks and water provided by Vanderbilt's metabolic kitchen.
  • Dietary Supplement: High-salt diet
    The high-salt diet (7 days) consists of each subject's typical diet, supplemented each day with 2 bullion broth packets, which will be provided to the subject by the study staff.
Experimental
High- then low-salt diet
10 subjects will be enrolled and each will undergo study procedures at 4 separate visits. Subjects will be randomly assigned to this study arm, differing in the order of low and high salt diets. After a baseline visit to include a noninvasive MRI scan, the subject will begin this study diet: high-salt diet, then washout consisting of the subject's typical diet, then low-salt diet. Each dietary or washout period lasts for 7 days, and study visits will occur after each period.
  • Dietary Supplement: Low-salt diet
    The low-salt diet (7 days) will consist of meals, snacks and water provided by Vanderbilt's metabolic kitchen.
  • Dietary Supplement: High-salt diet
    The high-salt diet (7 days) consists of each subject's typical diet, supplemented each day with 2 bullion broth packets, which will be provided to the subject by the study staff.

Recruiting Locations

Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Nashville, Tennessee 37212
Contact:
Rachelle Crescenzi, PhD
615-343-7182
rachelle.crescenzi@vumc.org

More Details

Status
Recruiting
Sponsor
Vanderbilt University Medical Center

Study Contact

Karlis Draulis, BS
615-875-6028
karlis.j.draulis@vumc.org

Detailed Description

Hypertension is a major cause of heart disease, heart failure, and stroke. Hypertension, or high blood pressure, affects people differently and is related to the body's ability to maintain healthy circulation of salt. Some individuals may be affected by salt sensitive blood pressure (SSBP), when their blood pressure changes in response to dietary salt load. SSBP is a prevalent, independent risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease that preferentially affects black individuals. Current methods to assess SSBP require dietary salt loading over the course of days to weeks, and measurement of blood pressure following high salt diet and low salt diet. Such lengthy protocols are not feasible in a clinical setting to evaluate this risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and more importantly, these procedures provide incomplete information about mechanisms of salt sensitivity. Our knowledge regarding salt handling in the body is limited. While renal dysfunction is partly responsible for SSBP, recent research points to the role of lymphatic vascular clearance in regulating tissue salt storage and blood pressure control. To better understand these mechanisms in vivo, we have recently developed a noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR) lymphangiography method sensitive to lymphatic vasculature, and applied standardized MR protocols for measuring tissue sodium and fat storage in adults with impaired lymphatic clearance. We found evidence of lymph stasis and tissue salt deposition that correlated with local subcutaneous fat volume. Here, we will test whether similar lymphatic pathways are impaired in persons with SSBP, leading to tissue salt and fat storage, in comparison to the involvement of renal dysfunction in SSBP tissue profiles. The aims of this study are to improve our understanding of vascular mechanisms of human salt storage, and to provide standardized radiologic biomarkers sensitive to the SSBP phenotype. This study will test the primary hypothesis that the SSBP response is correlated with baseline tissue sodium storage, and elevated in persons with salt sensitivity. Secondary hypotheses will address whether the SSBP response is related to fat storage, lymphatic vascular function, renal vascular function, and impaired target organ responses to salt loading, including decreased urinary sodium excretion, and less suppression of plasma renin and serum aldosterone.